kubespy trace: a real-time view into the heart of a Kubernetes Service

Posted by Alex Clemmer on Sep 26, 2018 8:21:33 AM
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This post is part 2 in a series on the Kubernetes API. Part 1 focused on the lifecycle of a Pod.

Why isn't my Pod getting any traffic?

An experienced ops team running on GKE might assemble the following checklist to help answer this question:

  1. Does a Service exist? Does that service have a .spec.selector that matches some number of Pods?
  2. Are the Pods alive and has their readiness probe passed?
  3. Did the Service create an Endpoints object that specifies one or more Pods to direct traffic to?
  4. Is the Service reachable via DNS? When you kubectl exec into a Pod and you use curl to poke the Service hostname, do you get a response? (If not, does any Service have a DNS entry?)
  5. Is the Service reachable via IP? When you SSH into a Node and you use curl to poke the Service IP, do you get a response?
  6. Is kube-proxy up? Is it writing iptables rules? Is it proxying to the Service?

This question might have the highest complexity-to-sentence-length ratio of any question in the Kubernetes ecosystem. Unfortunately, it's also a question that every user finds themselves asking at some point. And when they do, it usually means their app is down.

To help answer questions like this, we've been developing a small diagnostic tool, kubespy. In this post we'll look at the new kubespy trace command, which is broadly aimed at automating questions 1, 2, 3, and providing “hints” about 4 and 5.

Below is a gif demonstrating the CLI experience. You can watch in real-time as the Service comes online, finds pods to target, and finally is allocated a public IP address:

trace-success

What is kubespy, again?

kubespy is a simple, standalone diagnostic tool, meant to make it easy to introspect on Kubernetes resources in real time.

Before we begin, it's worth noting that this kubespy actually re-packages the machinery we developed for Kubernetes support in Pulumi.

One of our major goals in this work was to make deploying an application to Kubernetes as simple as possible, by presenting a concise summary of this information in the CLI experience. See my tweetstorm on the subject, or try it out for yourself!

status-rich (1)

A real-time view of a Service's life

The kubespy repository contains the simple trace example we use in this demo. The README contains detailed installation instructions, as well as explaining how to run the app (using either kubetl or pulumi though of course we hope you will try Pulumi).

Essentially: running kubespy trace service nginx will cause kubespy to sit and wait for you to deploy a Service called nginx. When you run this example, it will do just this: creating a Deployment which replicates an nginx Pod 3 times and exposes it publicly to the Internet with a Service, also called nginx.

Let's break down the kubespy trace gif above to show that there are actually several distinct steps in the process of booting up a Service.

First: Service is created, the Service controller creates an Endpoints object of the same name. The Endpoints object is to specify which Pods get traffic — their IPs, which ports to direct traffic to, and so on. In this case, there are no Pods to target, which kubespy trace tells us:

1-trace-success-create-svc

Second: Pods that match the Service's .spec.selector are created; their readiness probes immediately pass. The Endpoints object is updated to reflect this. As we will see below, if the Pods failed the readiness probes, kubespy trace would note this. 

2-trace-success-pods-ready

Third: Service is allocated a public IP address. The Service has .spec.type set to LoadBalancer, which on most cloud platforms means that a public IP address should be allocated for it.

3-trace-success-ip-allocated

Exercise: Other Service types, watching rollouts, deleting Services!

kubespy trace supports all the other Service types, including ExternalName and ClusterIP. Try both of those, and you'll see slightly different output. Try them! It's also worth watching what happens when a Service is deleted.

You can also use kubespy trace to watch an unhealthy deployment become healthy. In the following gif, we see a bunch of Pods that are failing readiness checks become healthy as a new version is rolled out:

become-alive

Conclusions

Confession time. Last time we told you we'd dig more into the lifecycle of a Pod. And we will, at some point. But we ended up deciding that it would be easier to explain with a cohesive trace command.

And, while this is a good start, it is only the beginning. trace currently supports only Service. In our next post, we'll extend trace to Deployment (or perhaps ReplicaSet), and from there, we will have enough tools to really dig into what is happening when you roll out your app.

In the mean time, if you enjoyed this post, or are curious to see how this lifecycle is baked into the Pulumi CLI, please give us a shot! We'd love to have your feedback.

Topics: Kubernetes

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